Monday, September 23, 2013

Six Degrees of separation The Edmund (Edmun) Downs Family Part 3



I was able to locate the Edmund Downs children in the 1878 Pike County in Holmesville School census. The following is the transcribed information.

CHILDREN
AGE
SEX
PARENT/ GUARDIAN Edmund Downs
Richard
19
M
Ann
17
F
Thomas
15
M
Mary
11
F
Edmund
5
M
Buckhaltter  Milford
16
M
Buckhalter  Jerimiah
(Jerry)
12
M
Buckhalter  W
8
M






The homestead of Edmun Downs was also identified in 1880 Federal Agriculture Census located on line 6 and Frank Brumfield on line 9. 



From the labor contract, population and agriculture census and school records, I have been able to identify the Edmond Downs family and break down the 1870 brick wall.

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Going to School


It was through school records that I looked for genealogy information.  In previous posts, I made some connections in the Brumfield tree. In the segregated post Civil War south, racial designation of colored and white are present in many records. School records were not an exception. The geographic locality of many families can often be found by race in the school records. I have started my research with Pike County, Mississippi school reports.

This division of races has helped me find information. The of Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandon Lands established in March, 1865 to April, 1872   was established to help impecunious survivors of the Civil War.  The Freedman’s Bureau helped launch early schools. Pre-Civil War laws precluded slave education which increased dependency to the slaveholder.  Literacy allows autonomy that is beyond the physical ties of slavery. 


1870 CENSUS

County
COLORED POPULATION
COLORED MALES 10-14 WHO CANNOT WRITE

COLORED FEMALES 10-14 WHO CANNOT WRITE

COLORED MALES 15-20 WHO CANNOT WRITE

COLORED FEMALES 15-20 WHO CANNOT WRITE

COLORED MALES 21 AND OVER WHO CANNOT WRITE

COLORED FEMALES 21 AND OVER WHO CANNOT WRITE
PIKE
5,312
363
340
292
336
872
945


 Many families including their children had signed labor contracts and initially did not attend school.  The necessities of life food, clothing and shelter were the priorities at that time. I however, was able to find family trees and branches in latter school records.    


1870 CENSUS

County
COLORED POPULATION
COLORED MALES ATTENDING SCHOOL
COLORED FEMALES ATTENDING SCHOOL
Pike
5,312
33
45



Monday, July 15, 2013

Six Degrees of separation The Edmund (Edmun) Downs Family Part 2


Several of the ways I analyze genealogic data are by the geographic location and groups of names which been clustered together. I am still trying to break the 1870 brick wall. Edmund signed the labor contract in 1865.  The next area I have investigated was the census records. 

In the 1870 Federal Census for Pike County, Mississippi a Edward Downs is listed with Courtney Downs and children.  An important fact to remember is that in the 1870 census the relationship of individuals to each other are not identified.


Name
Age
Sex
Race
Occupation
Place of birth
Edward
24
male
black
Farm hand
Louisiana
Courtney
26
female
black
Keeping house
Mississippi
Richard
4
male
black
Ann
3
female
black
Thomas
10/12
male
black
Jesse
15
female
black

1870 Federal Census Pike County, Mississippi Township 2 Range 8 Dwelling/family 193/194

The children listed were not born in 1865 except Jesse who would have been 10 years old.  In the labor contract, 7 male and 8 female children without names are listed.


In the 1880 Federal Census for Pike County Mississippi, Edmun Downs is listed with Caroline Downs and different set of children.  Only two of the children would have been alive in 1870 Frances who would have been 8 and Richard 4.





More information on Edmund Downs will be in Part 3


Tuesday, June 25, 2013

Six Degrees of separation The Edmund (Edmun) Downs Family Part 1


The one major brick walls in black African American genealogy are events prior to 1870. In my search for my family roots, I have looked for names, locations and relationships with other families. Possibly through this search, I might find more information about my family . I have found families who lived in Mississippi and Louisiana who married or where neighbors of my ancestors.  Following the end .of the Civil War in May, 1865 freedmen signed labor contracts to earn a living.  In the reviewing the Mississippi Archives for Pike County, Mississippi, I found the Edmund Downs family.

Name
Age
Planter
Date
Greene
16
Bacut? , Levy
10/12/1865
Edith
18
Bacut?, Levy
10/12/1865
Matilda
24
Bacut?, Levy
10/12/1865
Sarah
28
Bacut?, Levy
10/12/1865
Courtney
15
Bacut?, Levy
10/12/1865
Charles
17
Bacut?, Levy
10/12/1865
Caroline
35
Bacut?, Levy
10/12/1865
Edmund
35
Bacut?, Levy
10/12/1865









Edmund Downs Freedmen labor contract





How do I know this is the Edmund Downs Family? I will show evidence that this is the Downs Family in Part 2

Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Six Degrees of Separation


There is a theory that everyone is  separated  from each other  by only  six connections  or less. The connections of people are possibly of affiliation or kin.   This is known as six degrees of separation.  I became more cognizant of personal connections   every time I have logged onto Facebook or Linkedin.  I know someone who knows some else, who knows someone else ---who now I know.   In the process of my ancestral search, I have tried to use similar associations and links.  I have followed many family trees because of these links to my ancestral family tree. 
In the southern counties of Mississippi and adjacent northern parishes of Louisiana, clusters of the same surnames have appeared in my research.  I have made the hypothesis that 1) most of the members of the trees were slaves 2)they were connected by geography  3) lived  during the same time  4) they might know each other or the  slave holder 5) did not relocate after the Civil War  6) they did not die prematurely prior to 1870 census.   I know my hypothesis has many gaps.

In 1860 Federal census southern counties in Mississippi there were Pike, Marion, Amite, Wilkinson and Hancock. T he northern border of Louisiana in Washington Parish, St Helene, Tangipahoa, East Feliciana and West Feliciana. 


Genealogist Michael Hait  research  Mississippi had the highest number of slaveholders relative to its total population, but the number of slaveholders even in Mississippi was only 3.91% of the total population of that state. Over 55% of the total population of that state were slaves.”
MISSISSIPPI   NUMBER OF SLAVES IN 1860*

County
Slaves
Male
Female
Pike
4,935
2441
 2494
Amite
7,900
3972
 3928
Wilkinson
13,132
6541
 6591
Marion
2,185
1104
 1081
Hancock
19,241
9924
 9317


 LOUISIANA   NUMBER OF SLAVES IN 1860*

Parish

Slaves

Male

Female

Washington

1,690

845

 845

St Helene

3,711

1,906

 1805

Tangipahoa

0

0

 0

East Feliciana

10593

5162

 5431

West Feliciana

9,571

4,852

 4719

St Tammany

1,841

989

 845
*Source University of Virginia Library Census Browser
I am seaching through these counties for connections.      The Tree Gardener